6 and 10) are thinner than H. erectus, but thicker than modern humans. Tattersall (1986, p 165) stated that “ranges of morphological variation in closely related species in the living fauna normally overlap substantially or completely in most characters; some closely related species cannot be distinguished on the basis of hard parts.” This led Tattersall to argue that paleoanthropologists are seriously underestimating the number of hominin species present in the Middle and Late Pleistocene. American Journal of Human Genetics 92:454–459. Early Upper Paleolithic man and late Middle Paleolithic tools, Using the uranium method to investigate important Palaeolithic dates in northern China, Uranium series dating of fossil bones from the Hexian and Chaoxian human fossil sites, Paleolithic chronology and possible coexistence of, A comparison of genetic and phenotypic correlations, Problems of studies of North Korean Paleolithic cave sites, Paleolithic cave sites and culture in Northeast Asia. Archaic, early, or premodern H. sapiens are the terms used most frequently to refer to the eastern Asian hominins that cannot be allocated to either H. erectus or modern H. sapiens. Chaoxian is actually comprised of two distinct localities (A and B), separated by a 2–4 m limestone ridge. However, Spanish researchers prefer the older date, noting that the younger age is contradicted by fossil fauna from the same deposit as the hominins, including relatively primitive fossils of Ursus deningeri and the vole Clethrionomys acrorhiza (García and Arsuaga 2011). Reviewing previous estimates of Neanderthal population numbers, Dennell, Martinón-Torres, and Bermúdez de Castro (2011) proposed the Neanderthal population of Europe totaled 3,000–5,000 during interstadials and 1,500–2,500 during the depths of glacial advances, when Neanderthal populations were confined to refugia in Iberia, Italy, and the Balkans. Paris: The Hague. These damaged but relatively complete adult specimens show a mixture of features associated both with Homo erectus and with 'archaic H. sapiens'. For instance, Ndutu, Petralona, and Saccapastore H. heidelbergensis have Inca bones, but not only do these bones appear in higher frequency in the Chinese archaics (e.g., Dali, Dingcun, Xujiayao), they are shaped differently (Wu, 1988b; Wu and Poirier, 1995). Interestingly however, Weaver et al. Although making a general point, Klein (2009:XX) probably puts it most succinctly when he notes “that a first occurrence should be treated as a possible accident and even a second should be regarded as a possible coincidence. 2012). 2010. However, a number of researchers (e.g., Pope, 1988; Schepartz et al., 2000; Dennell, 2009) have questioned interpretations of the Yuanmou dates based solely on questions about context (i.e., some suggest the material was actually surface collected). 2011. Four hominin teeth (I 1, C 1, P 3 and P 3) recovered from the late Middle Pleistocene cave site of Panxian Dadong. The human chin revisited: what is it and who has it? King, M. R. Talbot, and E. T. Brown. Any signal of systematic diversity was lost. Lieberman, Daniel E., Brandeis M. McBratney, and Gail Krovitz. The stature of early modern humans from the Levalloiso-Mousterian of the Levant and the Gravettian of Europe is particularly striking relative to Neanderthals and almost all other samples from Europe before the twentieth century (Carretero et al. Nevertheless, Rightmire (1998, p 218) observed more than a decade ago that “[i]t is apparent that the traditional approach of lumping diverse humans together as ‘archaic’ Homo sapiens will no longer work. They found the best correspondence to observed patterns of human genetic variation in a model that features an origin of modern humans in Africa followed by exponential population growth, expansion from Africa and replacement of archaic hominins outside of Africa (specifically in Asia in their model) followed by exponential population growth in Asia, and finally a migration from Asia to the Americas followed by a final burst of exponential population growth in the New World. 1993. Morphometric analysis indicates that the Chaoxian teeth are “unremarkable” in that they fall within range of other Middle Pleistocene hominins (Bailey and Liu, 2010). Pope (1992), noting the rolled and abraded condition of the paleontological and archaeological materials, suggests that the collection accumulated as the result of fluvial activity. Ancestral DNA, Human Origins, and Migrations. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 11:5–16. H. heidelbergensis also has a more rounded and less‐angled occipital and a greater degree of cranial base flexion than H. erectus (but less than modern H. sapiens). The Ma U'Oi teeth were assigned to archaic H. sapiens for the following reasons (Demeter et al., 2004, 2005). Recent acceleration of human adaptive evolution. Morphological adaptation to climate in modern and fossil hominids. Morphological studies of the Zhoukoudian and Indonesian H. erectus fossils found similar regional variation (e.g., Anton, 2003). Only repeated, independent, mutually consistent occurrences can document a reliable pattern.” If the book is to be firmly closed on Yuanmou, then similar vertebrate and trace fossils from similar spatiotemporal facies need to be found. 2009. Fagundes et al. 3). No clear autapomorphic traits exist in the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm that clearly distinguish it from H. erectus sensu lato and H. sapiens. Middle to Late Pleistocene hominin occupation in the Three Gorges region, South China. 31 The effect of climate change on the tempo and mode of early hominids dispersals 32 from Africa during the Early and Middle Pleistocene is one of the main interests in 33 paleoanthropology and Paleolithic archaeology (Behrensmeyer, 2006). Current Anthropology 34:483–496. 2007; Marshall et al. Churchill, Steven E., Lee R. Berger, Adam Hartstone-Rose, and B. Headman Zondo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107:8910–8917. 2011. Journal of Human Evolution 62:367–376. Morphological variation does appear across time and space, and it could and should be classified (see also Rightmire, 1998, 2004, 2008). The Arabian Sea dust core shows a 100,000-year oscillation between wet and dry with the most intense and long-lasting dry periods corresponding to the major glacial advances in the Northern Hemisphere (fig. Some of the excavation team uncovering animal fossils at the site of Ti's al Ghadah, Saudi Arabia in back in 2013. In turn, similarities between the crania from Arago, Petralona, and Broken Hill suggest to some (e.g., Rightmire, 2008) that all of these fossils belong to the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm. Neandertal extinction and the millennial scale climatic variability of OIS 3. The arch‐cord index of the parietal falls close to H. erectus and is much higher than in modern humans (Wu and Poirier, 1995). The initial U‐series dates on associated animal teeth suggested an age range of 200–160 ka (Chen et al., 1987). Fagundes, Nelson J. R., Nicholas Ray, Mark Beaumont, Samuel Neuenschwander, Francisco M. Salzano, Sandro L. Bonatto, and Laurent Excoffier. 3rd edition. Rohling, Eelco J., Katherine M. Grant, Andrew P. Roberts, and Juan-Cruz Larrasoaña. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Arsuaga, J.-L., I. Martínez, A. Gracia, and C. Lorenzo. Weaver, Timothy D. 2012. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30:17–29. Deacon, Janette, and N. Lancaster. Brain size in H. erectus averages about 950 cm 3, while in a series of Middle Pleistocene crania from Africa and Europe, volume is about 1230 cm 3. The time is ripe for a reconsideration of scenarios for adaptive change because of the accumulation of a critical mass of new evidence from paleoecology, genetics, anatomy, and chronology. The Jinniushan estimated cranial capacity of ∼1,300 cm3 is within the range of modern humans. Ein Beitrag zur Palaontologie des Menschen. Neandertal talus bones from El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain): A 3D geometric morphometrics analysis. The Yokpo Daehyundong hominin fossils consist of frontal, occipital, and parietal fragments of a juvenile estimated to be 7–8 years of age at time of death (Fig. London: Penguin. Danyang Kunangul, 6. A Middle Pleistocene hominin of Serbia: Internal structure of our early ancestor's teeth can be reliably classified into various hominin taxa 8 March 2016 New specimens, especially from areas less well represented in the fossil record, can inform the debate on morphological changes to the skeleton and teeth and the phylogenetic course of human evolution during this period. A number of important Middle Pleistocene H. erectus localities are present in China, including Tangshan Huludong, Hexian, Chenjiawo, and Yunxian (Etler and Li, 1994; Wu and Poirier, 1995). Water levels in Lake Malawi over the last 145,000 years and 300,000 years of dust flux from different sea cores. (2012). Illustration: Peter Schouten “Southeast Asia is often overlooked in global discussions of megafauna extinctions,” says Associate Professor Julien … The hominin fossils were found in association with a mixture of Palearctic (e.g., Dicerorhinus) and Oriental (e.g., Macaca) taxa as well as about 200 lithic artifacts produced on locally available quartz and siliceous limestone. The Payre 15 mandible shows a combination of primitive and Neandertal-like features, with a receding symphyseal profile without any element of the mentum osseum, a posterior location of the mental foramen and lateral prominence. Other authors have calculated additional estimates for the divergence times between Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans (e.g., Harris and Nielsen 2013; Li, Mulliken, and Reich 2010; Meyer et al. Other SE Asian H. erectus fossils include Tham Kuyen (Vietnam), Tam Hang (Laos), Had Pu Dai (Thailand), and Ngandong and Sambungmacan (Indonesia) (Olsen and Ciochon, 1990 Ciochon et al., 1996; Schepartz et al., 2000; Anton, 2003; Marwick, 2009), though the phylogeny of the hominin fossils from mainland SE Asia is still debated. By applying a combination of absolute and relative dating techniques to many of these important hominin fossil localities and linking the archaeological and paleoenvironmental records, we will be in a much better position to reconstruct the nature of human evolution in eastern Asia during the Quaternary. The chronometric dates are very disparate: initial TL = ∼500–400 ka; later U‐series = ∼48–46 ka. The age of the fossils from Sima de los Huesos is a key problem for making sense of the tempo and mode of hominin evolution in Europe over the last 500 kyr (Stringer 2012). New discoveries from the early Late Pleistocene Lingjing site (Xuchang). What should be evident from this review is the need for an increase in the quality and quantity of the eastern Asian hominin fossil data set. Fortunately, with the increasing number of large‐scale multidisciplinary paleoanthropological field and laboratory research projects in eastern Asia, the record is quickly becoming better understood. Quaternary Science Reviews 22:769–788. Even though some Neandertals have maxillary shovel‐shaped incisors, Wu (1988b; Wu and Poirier, 1995) argues that all Chinese hominin fossils display this character. Cladistics organizes “things (be they species, populations, or artifacts) into a hierarchical pattern that reflects closeness of relationship based on the attributes (e.g., genes or morphology) exhibited by the individuals within those groups” (Lycett, 2007, p. 543–544). An array of U‐series and electron spin resonance dates suggests the Jinniushan hominin may date to ∼280–260 ka (Lu, 2003), though some (e.g., Pope, 1992) have questioned the relationship between the hominin fossils and the samples used for dating. Perhaps the two most distinguishing characteristics of the cranium are the pronounced supraorbital tori, which are reminiscent of Neandertals and the rounded orbits, the latter feature which is not found in any other Early or Middle Pleistocene hominin from China (Wu and Peng, 1959; Wu and Wu, 1985). Science 338:222–226. It will likely continue to be argued that allocating all of these transitional specimens to archaic H. sapiens might obscure specific variation (e.g., Tattersall, 1986; Tattersall and Schwartz, 2008). These studies can be divided into two separate approaches: 1) presence/absence of distinct character traits; and 2) examination of morphological regions, particularly on the skull (e.g., midfacial region). The effective population size for the autosomal genes in the entire population is expected to be four times that of mtDNA (i.e., and 8,000 in the western and eastern subpopulations, respectively). In a review of 75 distinctive cranial, dental, and postcranial features of early modern humans and Neanderthals, Trinkaus (2006) concluded that only one quarter were unique to Neanderthals while twice that many were unique to modern humans, a finding that means that Neanderthal morphology had remained fairly primitive while early moderns were much more derived. 2008. 2010. The thickness of the Xujiayao parietal fragments is within the range of H. erectus (Jia et al., 1979; Wu, 1980; Pope, 1992; Wu and Poirier, 1995). The hominin fossils were found in association with a diversity of Early Paleolithic artifacts (Gao and Norton, 2002) and a faunal collection dominated by Equus, with a smaller number of artiodactyla (e.g., Spiroceros, Gazella). In general, Roseman, Weaver, and colleagues found that population history accounts for roughly 50% of cranial morphology in modern humans, though it should be noted a great deal of variation exists. Note the rounded vault, reduced supraorbital tori, and flattened occipital tori. It is becoming more widely accepted that most European and African Middle Pleistocene hominins can be assigned to H. heidelbergensis. 2006. As a case in point, Blome et al. Tishkoff, Sarah A., Floyd A. Reed, Françoise R. Friedlaender, Christopher Ehret, Alessia Ranciaro, Alain Froment, Jibril B. Hirbo, et al. Nature Ecology and Evolution DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0698-9. Working off-campus? 2010), and another bottleneck after 48 ka (Dalén et al. - Site - … A further difficulty particular to Africa lies in the variability of dust-flux records: different patterns occur in different cores around Africa (fig. heidelbergensis then disperses into Europe, Middle East, East Asia •First hominin to extensively populate Europe •last common ancestor of AMHS and … Reviews of the Paleolithic record of SE Asia published over the past two decades (e.g., Olsen and Ciochon, 1990; Pope and Keates, 1994; Schepartz et al., 2000; Marwick, 2009) indicate the great potential and need for more detailed multidisciplinary field and laboratory research programs in the region. 2012. Bischoff, James L., Ross W. Williams, Robert J. Rosenbauer, Arantza Aramburu, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Nuria García, and Gloria Cuenca-Bescós. 2012; Stringer 2007, 2011). Furthermore, the chronometric ages of Xujiayao, Dali, Dokchon Soongnisan, and Salkhit are not clear. 2007. Position of minimum distance between the superior temporal lines, 7. 2013) indicated. More than one decade ago, Rightmire (1998, p 225) remarked that “[w]hether the [Chinese] skeletons should be lumped with Homo heidelbergensis is one issue; how they are related to recent Asian populations is another. Nature 414:628–631. For example, Rightmire (2004) notes a number of cases of effective hominin hunting in Middle Pleistocene western Eurasia (e.g., Boxgrove, Schoningen). If encephalization is the primary mechanism operating in the mid-Pleistocene, then diverse aspects of cranial form cannot all be treated as independent variables. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276:809–814. ———. A number of cranial characteristics are recognized to be distinctive of H. heidelbergensis (as reviewed recently by Rightmire, 2008). (Image by LIU Wu) Although a relatively large number of late Middle Pleistocene hominins have been found in East Asia, these fossils have not been consistently included in current debates about the origin of anatomically modern humans (AMHS), and little is known … ———. The hominin fossils are represented by a complete frontal bone and two partial parietal fragments. Postcranial remains seem also to have archaic features. 2011), although an extremely rare Y-chromosome haplotype from an African American man was recently reported that coalesces with other Y chromosomes at 338 ka (Mendez et al. American Journal of Human Genetics 88:814–818. In the foreground Homo erectus, stegodon, hyenas, and Asian rhinos are depicted. Because of the presence of fossil hominins in two distinct biogeographic zones (Palearctic and Oriental), the question that might arise is should we expect to find regional variation in hominin morphology as studies of eastern Asian human fossil materials have shown (e.g., Turner, 1990; Wu et al., 2007; Pietrusewsky, 2010)? Journal of Archaeological Science 32:1656–1668. 2010) and recovery and analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from “Denisovans,” a third lineage that separated from modern humans slightly before Neanderthals (Meyer et al. U-series dating of hominin fossil-bearing Panlong Cave in Guangdong Province, southern China. This is particularly the case for the African and European Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record. No hominin trace fossils (manuports, lithics, or hominin‐modified bones) were recovered from the site during either the initial surveys or the ensuing excavations (Wu and Poirier, 1995). An early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China, Mass spectrometric U‐series dating of Chaoxian hominid site at Yinshan, Eastern China, Which cranial regions reflect molecular distances reliably in humans? On a fossil by fossil comparison, other morphological similarities do exist between the eastern and western Eurasian hominin fossils (Pope, 1992; Etler, 1996). Inference of human population history from individual whole-genome sequences. South African Archaeological Bulletin 44:17–22. Many authorities prefer the term “marine isotope stage” for this sequence because the marine sequence is the longest and most complete, but in light of the importance of ice cores in illuminating the last 300 kyr, I have used the older and more inclusive oxygen isotope stage (OIS) throughout this paper. Kappelman, John. Human evolution out of Africa: the role of refugia and climate change. If these remarkably low population numbers are accurate, Neanderthals may never have been numerous enough to experience conditions in which there were enough individuals for favorable mutations to arise at a brisk pace. In this paper, I argue that climate and population genetics are linked. At the genetic level, two of the fundamental means by which evolution can occur are natural selection (referred to subsequently simply as “selection”) and genetic drift. Petralona, Arago, Atapuerca, Bodo, and Broken Hill do not display this Asian midfacial morphology (Pope, 1991, 1992). There have been suggestions that perhaps the eastern Asian late Middle Pleistocene hominins can also be allocated to the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm. Sørensen, Bent. You are an artist, and a museum has hired you to reconstruct a Middle Pleistocene hominin in a sculpture for the museum's new human evolution exhibit. Here we describe an African fossil cranium constrained by 40Ar/39Ar analyses, magnetostratigraphy, and sedimentary features to 0.97 to 0.90 Ma, and stratigraphically associated … Re-dating Changyang Cave in Hubei province, southern China. Tangshan, 15. A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual. Close correspondence between quantitative‐ and molecular‐genetic divergence times for Neandertals and modern humans, Race and human evolution: a fatal attraction, Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory, The hominin fossil record: taxa, grades and clades, The raw and the stolen: cooking and the ecology of human origins, Human fossils discovered at Xujiayao site in 1977, The reconstruction of the fossil human skull from Jinniushan, Yingkou, Liaoning Province and its main features, Fossil human skull of early Paleo‐anthropic stage found at Mapa, Shaokuan, Kwangtung Province, Palaeoanthropology and paleolithic archaeology in the People's Republic of China, Craniofacial morphological microevolution of Holocene populations in northern China, Chronology of the stratum containing the skull of the Dali Man, The dating of southern Chinese Palaeolithic sites by uranium method. The completion of a draft of the Neanderthal nuclear genome (Green et al. Global and Planetary Change 78:147–161. The evolution of the human head. Howell, F. C. 1957. In the early 1990s, it was proposed that H. erectus and H. sapiens overlapped in China (Chen and Zhang, 1991; Chen et al., 1994; Groves and Lahr, 1994).6 The primary evidence for this was the initial dating of the Hexian H. erectus fossils at ∼190–150 ka and the nearby Chaoxian archaic H. sapiens fossils, which were initially dated to ∼200–160 ka (Chen and Zhang, 1991). Harpending, H. C., S. T. Sherry, A. R. Rogers, and M. Stoneking. 2002. This review has raised a number of questions. PLoS ONE 5:e15582. Two views prevail concerning the significance of H. heidelbergensis in Middle Pleistocene human evolution.H. Patterns of human evolution in northeast Asia with a particular focus on Salkhit. We performed 3D virtual reconstructions based on CT scans to study the bony labyrinth morphology in 14 individuals from the large middle Pleistocene hominin sample from the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain. Carretero et al. is often included in cladistic analyses. Nuclear DNA sequences from Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins show they were more closely related to Neanderthals than to Denisovans, and indicate a … Detailed phylogenetic analysis of primate T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (PTLV-1) sequences from orangutans ( Pongo pygmaeus ) reveals new insights into the evolutionary history of PTLV-1 in Asia. 1994. Scientific drilling in the Great Rift Valley: the 2005 Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project: an overview of the past 145,000 years of climate variability in Southern Hemisphere East Africa. Cartmill and Smith (2009, p. 330) justifiably observe that “[i]n any anatomical comparison in which different features are being tallied and contrasted, there is a tendency to think of all the items in the tally as separate entities produced independently by evolutionary forces.” Pope (1992, p. 245) notes that “[i]t is of the utmost importance to establish that traits are independent of each other in order to prevent the generation of long lists of separate traits which are really manifestations of the same selection pressures or developmental complexes.” Interestingly, Lieberman and colleagues, in a series of studies (e.g., Lieberman, 1995, 1998, 2008; Lieberman et al., 2000, 2002), have shown that the overall morphology of the human skull will depend on functional requirements involved minimally with speech, respiration, locomotion, mastication, and cognition. Journal of Human Evolution 62:300–313. Chaoxian, 3. 2010. The 10,000 year explosion: how civilization accelerated human evolution. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com. The specimen was thus initially referred to as Mongolanthropus. However, the degree of postorbital constriction and thickness and concavity of the tympanic plate lie between H. erectus and modern H. sapiens. London: Allen Lane. -a robust body-large browridges-a prominent chin-curved finger bones-a low and long skill Hylander, William L. 1977. Selection generally works on a given gene only if different alleles exist and one confers higher fitness than another, although epistasis (the interdependence of genes to produce a phenotype) may produce a shifting target for selection. Stringer (2012) also notes that an age of 600–500 ka for the Sima de los Huesos fossils would place them earlier than the estimated population divergence times for the ancestors of modern humans and Neanderthals and that the dated spelothems may, in fact, have been breached by a flow of younger sediments within the cave so that younger strata containing the hominins now underlie an only partially complete but older spelothem. 1999. 80 ka (Harpending et al. In Aspects of human evolution. Water levels adapted from Scholz et al. 2001. A complete human pelvis from the Middle Pleistocene of Spain. Although there are several sites close each other representing the European Middle Pleistocene hominin record, the fossils from those sites conform two big groups of morphological traits (apart from the Neandertals < 200 Ka): A group represented by Sima de los Huesos, Swanscombe and now Aroeira 3 which show Neandertal traits in the face, supraorbital torus, temporal bone and … 2010. Ebb and flow or regional extinctions? There have been suggestions that perhaps the eastern Asian late Middle Pleistocene hominins can also be allocated to the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm. 2002. The Upper Paleolithic of Mongolia: Recent finds and new perspectives. Contour of the lower border of the zygomatic process of the maxilla, 5. Simpson, Scott W., Jay Quade, Naomi E. Levin, Robert Butler, Guillaume Dupont-Niven, Melanie Everett, and Sileshi Semaw. Brooks, Alison S., and Peter Robertshaw. Graves, Ronda R., Amy C. Lupo, Robert C. McCarthy, Daniel J. Wescott, and Deborah L. Cunningham. 2007. Under a neutral model of evolution, most new mutations are lost to drift (especially in small or numerically stable populations). Stringer, Chris. 1992. Within this count, ten axes were discovered, eighteen scraping tools were uprooted, one steel chisel tool (for … Water levels adapted from Scholz et al. Xujiayao, and 21. 2012). Pp. These late, western Neanderthal mtDNA sequences have a coalescent age of 58 ka (the end of OIS 4) with a 95% CI 54–77 ka. Demography and cultural innovation: a model and its implications for the emergence of modern human culture. Thus, large populations provide favorable conditions for the production of new, beneficial mutations; large and growing populations provide the most fertile ground for new mutations to arise and increase in frequency. Late Middle Pleistocene hominin teeth from Tongzi, southern China. Major dry phases would have been guaranteed to produce greatly expanded Sahara and Kalahari deserts and unfavorable conditions for human habitation. 1 is from a ∼50‐year‐old female, Mandible no. With the increase in H. heidelbergensis cranial capacity, there is a reduction in the degree of postorbital constriction, eventually leading to modern H. sapiens‐like morphology. Water buffalo can be seen at the edge of a riparian forest in the background. 1986. 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